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Nearly 7% of the world population is obese1 and about 66% of the adults in the United States are overweight or obese.2 Obesity is associated with a number of adverse medical conditions including increased risk of gallbladder disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease (CHD), osteoarthritis, cancer death and reduced life expectancy.3–8 Obesity is also associated with adverse social and psychological consequences, including bias, discrimination and decreased quality of life.9,10
More effective treatment strategies are urgently needed for obesity management. The total caloric intake or energy density of one’s diet appears to be associated with obesity11–14 and a diet that induces a negative energy balance continues to be an important part of obesity management. Strategies to achieve the difficult task of eating less than desired include reduction of the energy density of foods by increasing food volume by the addition of fluids,15,16 bulk17–19 or their combination;20 or by increasing satiety by various anorectic drugs or macronutrient combinations of high satiety value.
Satiety is positively associated with the protein, fiber and water content of foods and negatively with fat and palatability ratings.21,22 However, within food groups, there may be as much as a twofold difference in satiety values, suggesting that certain foods promote greater satiety independent of macronutrient content or energy density. An egg is an example of such a food that has a 50% greater satiety index compared to white bread or ready-to-eat breakfast cereal.21 Compared to an isocaloric bagel breakfast of equal weight, an egg breakfast had a greater satiating effect, which translated into a lower caloric intake at lunch.23 The resulting decrease in energy consumption lasted for at least 24 h after the egg breakfast.
This study was undertaken to exploit the short-term satiating benefits of an egg breakfast23 for weight loss in a longer-term trial. The objectives were to determine if the incorporation of an egg breakfast in the diet by overweight or obese subjects would (1) induce reduced energy intake and unintentional weight loss, even when not attempting weight reduction; or (2) enhance weight loss when following a reduced energy diet. We compared the effects of an egg vs isocaloric bagel breakfast of equal weight on weight loss, indices of body size and composition, dietary compliance, food cravings and health-specific quality of life.Materials and methods
The study was approved by the institutional review boards at Pennington Biomedical Research Center and at Saint Louis University. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. We certify that all applicable institutional and governmental regulations regarding the ethical use of human volunteers were followed during this research.
Of the 160 participants enrolled, 8 did not complete the trial. The final study sample included 152 participants (131 women and 21 men; mean age 45.0±9.4 years; black participants 47.7% and white participants 52.3%). Demographic characteristics of the participants are provided inTable 1
Starting Workout Routines: For Women Who Don’t Normally Exercise
If you’ve decided to get fit in the new year then it’s important to know that not all workout routines for women are created equal. We all start at different fitness levels, so if you don’t normally exercise then you may find it harder to get into new routines. For the sake of your health and your motivation, follow these tips to make sure you go about things the right way.
Checking With Your Doctor
Even if you are healthy, going for a physical assessment can help you know what level you’re at, and boost your determination to get started. Knowing how fit (or unfit!) you are before you start can be great motivation to continue, and a measure for your future success.
Getting The Right Workout Gear
If you’re about to start doing workout routines for women then you’re going to want to make sure you have comfortable clothing to work out in. There’s no need to spend a fortune, but you need to make sure that what you do have allows you to move freely. It’s especially important to invest in a good sports bra to protect the breasts, and some good training shoes that will help you to avoid problems with your joints and back.
How To Fit Exercise Into Your Daily RoutineWorkout routines for women who don’t exercise may seem to take up a lot of time – time that you may not have – but the truth is that just about anyone can fit the exercise they need into their daily routine. All you need to do is make sure you get some aerobic activity for at least 10 minutes at a time, preferably a few times a day. This could even include walking to the store, climbing stairs, or doing the gardening.
Pushing Through The Obstacles
If you don’t normally exercise, then starting new workout routines can often present new challenges. For a start, you’ll find that exercise quickly tires you out. That’s ok – it’s better to exercise for short periods of time (maybe 10 minutes) and do it consistently until you build up. You may also find that your muscles ache, so compensate for this by working out different muscles every day and taking a couple of days off each week. Remember – if you start to feel any serious symptoms it’s important to see a doctor.
Workout routines for women who don’t normally exercise will be a challenge, but you can be flexible. Do what you need to do to keep yourself motivated. Every day you’ll find that you can push yourself a little further, and the rewards will soon start to outweigh the pain.
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